Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public DomainGovernments are not using the latest mapping technology to report key environmental data about tropical forests to the UN, say researchers. Known as carbon-flux budgets, they are important metrics to mark progress towards climate change targets. To remove some of the burden on governments, space agencies and remote sensing scientists have developed specialist global forest maps. "Our study highlights many of the satellite-based global maps offered over the last decade are not used by sovereign nations monitoring and reporting forest carbon fluxes to the Climate Change Convention." More information: Joana Melo et al, Satellite-based global maps are rarely used in forest reference levels submitted to the UNFCCC, Environmental Research Letters (2023).
The country has one of the highest population growth rates in the world, with few signs of slowing down. So, how will Niger go from feeding 25 million people today to its projected population of 50 million people in 2050? There must also be additional investments in local agricultural research and dissemination, and to transform this into agricultural productivity growth. Likely setbacksAgricultural productivity growth will likely be outpaced, however, by population growth and climate change setbacks. This means the population growth rate must fall.23 days ago Phys.org
Neighbors China and Japan have far more experience and North Korea has sent missiles further into space than South Korea has sent its newest home-grown rocket. South Korea has seen the number of jobs in space industries rise steadily from 6,708 in 2017 to 7,317 in 2021. South Korea could differentiate itself by helping businesses find less costly ways to put high-performance satellites into low orbit, he said. It has attracted partnerships from more than 20 nations, including South Korea. South Korea isn't considering collaboration with China at the moment, he said.1 month ago Phys.org
After finding that Black taxpayers were 2.9 to 4.7 times more likely to be audited than non-Black taxpayers, the team explored possible reasons for that disparity. Indeed, Black taxpayers accounted for 21% of EITC claims, but were the focus of 43% of EITC audits. The result: The racial disparity in audit selection flips—an omniscient IRS aimed at capturing the most underreported income tax would audit more non-Black taxpayers than Black taxpayers. Because far more Black taxpayers have lower income, they have less opportunity to underreport substantial amounts of income. The racial impact of IRS resource constraintsSeventy percent of IRS audits happen through the mail and 50% involve EITC claimants.1 month ago Phys.org
c The 21-year sliding frequency of extreme El Niño events (black solid line)/CP El Niño events (red solid line) in the reconstruction and the normalized 21-year running mean AMO reconstruction index. They found that greenhouse warming and internal variability synergistically increased extreme and Central Pacific El Niño frequency since 1980. The researchers revealed another extreme El Niño and Central Pacific El Niño epoch around the year 1900, with similar spatial and temporal evolution, dynamic processes, and climate impacts as those that occurred in the last 40 years. They also found that the frequent occurrence of extreme El Niño events and Central Pacific El Niño events since 1980 was caused by the combination of anthropogenic forcing and internal variability associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. More information: Ruyu Gan et al, Greenhouse warming and internal variability increase extreme and central Pacific El Niño frequency since 1980, Nature Communications (2023).1 month ago Phys.org
And as the Dutch this week commemorate the great flood of 1953, thoughts are inevitably turning to current-day climate change and how the low-lying country remains vulnerable to rising ocean levels. "Due to climate change the flood survivors in recent years have become increasingly worried, asking 'will the water return? '," said Johan van Doorn, 59, a historian living in Heijningen. When the Delta Works were completed in the 1980s, the message to the maritime province of Zeeland was that it "was safe", Van Doorn said. Any survivor of the 1953 flood "will never again sleep peacefully" in the event of a storm or a flood, Van Doorn said.1 month ago Phys.org
What are toxic remnants of war? Toxic remnants of war are poisonous or hazardous substances resulting from military activities. Some toxic remnants are a direct result of armed conflict. Toxic remnants of war also interact with the effects of climate change. Without firm action, toxic remnants of war will continue to pose long term threats to communities and ecosystems.1 month ago Phys.org
A large tabular iceberg in the Weddell Sea surrounded by sea ice. Knowing the height of the ice allows scientists to calculate thickness—which, along with measurements of the extent of ice coverage, is vital for understanding how the volume of ice is changing, both ice on land and ice floating in the sea. This is particularly difficult over sea ice because snow can build up on top of the ice. Credit: AirbusDetermining the thickness of sea ice involves measuring the "freeboard" of ice floes—the height protruding from the water. ESA Research Fellow, Isobel Lawrence, noted, "The campaign in Antarctica has been essential in future-proofing sea-ice thickness measurements from space."2 months ago Phys.org